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Glossary of IT terms and abbreviations

Term Explanation

address bar

The bar or field in a web browser where the website address or other URL is typed in and displayed.

Also known as the location bar or URL bar.

Further information at Wikipedia


  1. Application programming interface - a set of routinesprotocols, and tools for building software applications. from and more information at Webopedia. see also MAPI Messaging Application Programming Interface
  2. Advance Passenger Information (for air travel)

  3. The American Petroleum Institute

b, B

b = bit; B = byte

see also bit and byte


A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and digital communications. A bit can have only one of two values, and may therefore be physically implemented with a two-state device. These values are most commonly represented as either a 0 or 1. The term bit is a portmanteau of binary digit.

The two values can also be interpreted as logical values (true/false, yes/no), algebraic signs (+/−), activation states (on/off), or any other two-valued attribute. The correspondence between these values and the physical states of the underlying storage or device is a matter of convention, and different assignments may be used even within the same device or program. The length of a binary number may be referred to as its bit-length.

The 'official' symbol for bit is bit, and this should be used in all multiples, such as kbit, for kilobit. However, the lower-case letter b is widely used. In contrast, the upper case letter B is the standard and customary symbol for byte.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia

see also byte and kilobyte


Bluetooth is a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) technology that allows for short-distance wireless access to all sorts of devices, such as headsets, mobile phones, computers, smart watches, Google Glass, and even car in-dash systems for hands-free calling and playing music.

from My Samsung Galaxy Note 4, p.57, Johnson & Hart-Davis, pub. Que 2015

see also Personal Area Network; and Why is Bluetooth so called?

see also Wi-Fi Direct


see Web browser


The byte is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, the byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer and for this reason it is the smallest addressable unit of memory in many computer architectures. The size of the byte has historically been hardware dependent and no definitive standards existed that mandated the size. The de facto standard of eight bits is a convenient power of two permitting the values 0 through 255 for one byte.

The unit symbol for the byte is specified as the upper-case character B.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia

see also bit and kilobyte


Short-term data storage in a computer's 'temporary memory', used in order to speed up computer operations.


Covert Communications Data Capture

from (and more information at) The Register

see also:

  • GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications​
  • IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity


Country code top-level domain

see Top-level domain

Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures

Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE®) is a dictionary of common names (CVE Identifiers) for publicly known information-security vulnerabilities. CVE’s common identifiers make it easier to share data across separate network security databases and tools, and provide a baseline for evaluating the coverage of an organization’s security tools. If a report from a company's security tools incorporates CVE Identifiers, then information about it may be retrieved from one or more separate CVE-compatible databases.

The CVE system is maintained by MITRE Corporation, with funding from the National Cyber Security Division of the United States Department of Homeland Security.

from (and more information at) About CVE and Wikipedia

Country code top-level domain

see Top-level domain


see Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures

Digital Rights Management

Digital rights management (DRM) is a class of copy protection technologies that are used by hardware and software manufacturers, publishers, copyright holders, and individuals with the intent to control the use of digital content and devices after sale. With first-generation DRM software, the intent is to control copying; with second-generation DRM, the intent is to control executing, viewing, copying, printing, and altering of works or devices. The term is also sometimes referred to as copy protection, copy prevention, and copy control, although the correctness of doing so is disputed. DRM is a set of access control technologies.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia

DRM has also been dubbed by opponents as "digital restrictions management" or "digital restrictions mechanisms", because it restricts users’ ability to freely use their purchased movies, music, literature, software, and hardware in ways they are accustomed to with ordinary non-restricted media (such as books and audio compact discs).

from (and more information at) Wikipedia

Digital Visual Interface

Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). The digital interface is used to connect a video source, such as a display controller to a display device, such as a computer monitor. It was developed with the intention of creating an industry standard for the transfer of digital video content.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia; see also What is the difference between DVI-I and DVI-D?; HDMI vs. DisplayPort vs. DVI vs. VGA: Which connection to choose?


DisplayPort is a digital display interface developed by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, though it can also be used to carry audio, USB, and other forms of data.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia;

see Official Site;

see also HDMI vs. DisplayPort vs. DVI vs. VGA: Which connection to choose?


see Domain Name System


see Domain Name and Domain Name System

Domain Name

Domain Name is the unique name used to identify, most commonly, a specific website, but can also be used for the naming of other resources connected to the internet or a private network.

Domain Name (usually) consists of two or more components (technically referred to as labels) separated by dots.  Each component might be considered as roughly equivalent to each line of a conventional postal address. The right-most component (or label) is know as the top-level domain (tld); the component to its immediate left is known as the second-level domain (sld), and is a sub-domain of the top-level domain; and so on.

Thus, for example, in, uk is the top-level domainco is the second-level domain, and is a sub-domain of uk; and example is a third-level domain.  Here, the fourth level may typically be used to designate a particular host server. Thus, would designate a World Wide web server, would designate a 'file transfer protocol' (FTP) server, and might be an email server, each intended to perform only the implied function.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia

see also Domain Name System

Domain Name System

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical naming system most commonly seen in the naming of websites, but also used for the naming of computers, services, or any resource connected to the internet or a private network. It translates domain names, which can be easily memorized by humans, to the numerical IP addresses needed for the purpose of computer services and devices worldwide. The Domain Name System is an essential component of the functionality of most Internet services because it is the Internet's primary directory service.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia

see also Domain Name


Disk Operating System - a term that is used to refer to various computer operating systems that were operated by using the command line. The most well known type of DOS is MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System), which was originally developed by Microsoft for IBM, and was the standard operating system for IBM-compatible personal computers from 1981 to 1995.  The early Windows systems - from Windows 1.01 (Nov 1985), through Windows 2.03 (Dec 1987), Windows 3.0 (May 1990), Windows 3.1 (Apr 1992), Windows 95 (Aug 1995), Windows 98 (June 1998), to Windows ME (Millennium Edition) (Sep 2000) - were also partly based on MS-DOS.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia and Webopedia.

see also Operating System


see Digital Rights Management


see Digital Visual Interface


see Exabyte


1 exabyte (EB) = 1000 or 1024 petabytes (PB)

see kilobytemegabytegigabyte, terabyte, and petabyte

see What is 1 kilobyte? — 1024 bytes or 1000 bytes?

File type

see Filename extension

Filename extension

filename extension is the suffix at the end of a filename, normally separated from the main part of the filename by a dot. The filename extension identifies the 'file type', typically the 'file format' (type of encoding), and the purpose or usage of the computer file.  It is also used by the computer to determine which program on that computer should be used to open the file; this may vary from computer to computer, and each computer maintains a list of which installed programs should be used to open which file type.  

Examples of filename extensions are .doc, .png, .jpeg, .exe, .dmg, and .txt.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia

see also List of filename extensions


see Gigabyte

Generic top-level domain

see Top-level domain


1 gigabyte (GB) = 1000 or 1024 megabytes (MB)

see kilobyte and megabyte

see What is 1 kilobyte? — 1024 bytes or 1000 bytes?

Graphical User Interface

graphical user interface (GUI), sometimes pronounced /ˈɡuːi/ ("gooey") is a type of interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, as opposed to text-based interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation. GUIs were introduced in reaction to the perceived steep learning curve of command-line interfaces (CLIs), which require commands to be typed on the keyboard.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia

graphical user interface is the type of interface introduced by Windows(TM) and now common in personal computers, mobile phones, etc..


Global System for Mobile Communications​

from (and more information at) The Register

see also:

  • CCDC - Covert Communications Data Capture
  • IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity


Generic top-level domain

see Top-level domain


see Graphical User Interface

Hardware address

see MAC address


High Definition


Hard Disk Drive


see High-Definition Multimedia Interface

High-Definition Multimedia Interface

HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transferring uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device. HDMI is a digital replacement for analog video standards.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia;

see also HDMI vs. DisplayPort vs. DVI vs. VGA: Which connection to choose?


hotspot is a physical location that offers internet access over a wireless local area network (WLAN) through the use of a router connected to a link to an Internet service provider. Hotspots typically use Wi-Fi technology.

Hotspots may be found in coffee shops and various other public establishments in many developed urban areas throughout the world. A hotspot is differentiated from a wireless access point, which is the hardware device used to provide the wireless network service.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia


see Hypertext Transfer Protocol 


see Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure

Hypertext Transfer Protocol

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a means by which a client computer and a server computer communicate with each other, and is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web.

For more information see Wikipedia.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure

Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is a secure version of  Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) in which:

  • there is bidirectional encryption of communications between a client and server, which protects against eaves-dropping and tampering with the contents of the communication,  and/or forging it; and
  • there is authentication of the server (e.g. the visited website), which  protects against 'man-in-the-middle' attacks.

In practice, this provides a reasonable guarantee that one is communicating with precisely the website that one intended to communicate with (as opposed to an impostor), as well as ensuring that the contents of communications between the user and site cannot be read or forged by any third party.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia.

see also Transport Layer Security


Internet Message Access Protocol:  protocol for retrieving e-mail messages. The latest version, IMAP4, is similar to POP3 but supports some additional features. For example, with IMAP4, you can search through your e-mail messages for keywords while the messages are still on mail server. You can then choose which messages to download to your machine.

from Webopedia

see also:

  • MAPI - Messaging Application Programming Interface
  • POP3 - Post Office Protocol v.3
  • SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol


International Mobile Subscriber Identity

from The Register

see also:

  • CCDC - Covert Communications Data Capture
  • GSM - Global System for Mobile Communications​


The Operating System used on Apple iPhones, iPads, etc..


Internet of Things

IP address

Internet Protocol address: The numerical address used to identify a device (computer, printer, smart phone, etc.) connected via a network or over the internet. Unlike a MAC address, an IP address can be changed at any time and may be assigned by a network (typically by its router) when the device is connected to that network.

see also MAC address

kB, KB

see kilobyte

kilobyte, Kilobyte

Strictly (lowercase) kB = 1024 bytes;  and (uppercase) KB = 1000 bytes (but that distinction may not always be observed).

see What is 1 kilobyte? — 1024 bytes or 1000 bytes?

see also Wikipedia: Binary prefix

see also byte


see Local area network

Local area network

LAN is a local area network: a computer network covering a small local area, such as a home or office.

local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, or office building. A local area network is contrasted in principle to a wide area network (WAN), which covers a larger geographic distance and may involve leased telecommunication circuits, while the media for LANs are locally managed.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia

see also Personal area network

location bar

see address bar

MAC address

A MAC (Media Access Control) address, sometimes referred to as a hardware address or physical address, is an ID code that's assigned to a network adapter or any device with built-in networking capability, such as a printer, smart phone, etc.. While an IP address can potentially be assigned to any device, a MAC address is "burned into" a given device from the factory. A MAC address takes the form of six pairs of hexadecimal digits, usually separated by colons or dashes and will look something like this: 01:1F:33:69:BC:14.

Secure Wi-Fi networks may be set up to allow connection only from devices whose MAC address is registered with the network.

from (and further information at) Webopedia

see also IP address


Messaging Application Programming Interface, a system built into Microsoft Windows that enables different e-mail applications to work together to distribute mail. As long as both applications are MAPI-enabled, they can share mail messages with each other. 

from and more information at Webopedia

see also:

  • API - Application programming interface
  • IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol
  • POP3 - Post Office Protocol v.3
  • SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol


see Megabyte


1 megabyte (MB) = 1000 Kilobytes (KB) or 1024 kilobytes (kB)

see kilobyte

see What is 1 kilobyte? — 1024 bytes or 1000 bytes?

MicroSD card

A small SD card typically used in mobile devices such as smartphones.

see SD card


see Multimedia Messaging Service


Microsoft Disk Operating System

for further details, see DOS.

Multimedia Messaging Service

Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is an evolution of the Short Message Service (SMS), but it permits the inclusion of pictures, video, or audio content within the message being sent to another device. It is most commonly used to send a photo taken with a camera phone to another phone. Most new mobile phones with multimedia capabilities support MMS.  Standard MMS messages can support videos of up to 40 seconds, single images or slideshows, and audio clips.

from 'What's the difference between a text message, SMS, and MMS'

More information at 'What is MMS Picture Messaging?' and 'Everything You Need to Know About SMS & MMS'.

see also Short Message Service (SMS)


Original Equipment Manufacturer

OEM Licence

A licence for the use of software that was provided by the manufacturer of the computer or other equipment on which it is used.  Typically, this refers to a licence for the use of Windows that was provided pre-installed on the computer when purchased new: the licence relates solely to the pre-installed version of the software, permitting it to be used on that equipment, for the lifetime of the equipment.  The licence is tied to that device: it is not transferable to a different device, but would transfer to a new owner of the device.  As with most software licences, it would permit software updates to that version, but would not normally permit software upgrades to another version (except where the software manufacturer permits it, as with free upgrades to Windows 10 for a limited time).

see also Retail Licence


see Operating System

Operating System

The operating system (OS) is the fundamental software program that every general-purpose computer (including tablets, smart phones, etc.) requires in order to run other programs and applications. The operating system perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard or elsewhere, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers.

from (and more information at) Webopedia; also more information at Wikipedia.

Examples of operating systems include MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, OS X (formerly Mac OS X),  iOS, Unix, Linux, Google Chrome OS, Chromium OS, Android, and many more.

A full list of operating systems is available on Wikipedia.


On Screen Display


'On The Go' - see USB OTG


see Personal Area Network


Passpoint is a technology that is being used increasingly by operators of Wi-Fi hotspots, and its purpose is to let Passport-enabled smart phones and tablets to roam automatically onto the hotspots with no need to search for them or login to them using a typical hotspot web page. Based on its SIM card, the device is automatically authenticated and provided with  secure encrypted hotspot connection.

from My Samsung Galaxy Note 4, p.68, Johnson & Hart-Davis, pub. Que 2015


see Petabyte

Personal Area Network

personal area network (PAN) is a network centred on an individual person's workspace, and typically used for for interconnecting devices such as computerstelephones and personal digital assistantsPANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).

wireless personal area network (WPAN) is a PAN carried over wireless network technologies. The reach of a WPAN varies from a few centimetres to a few metres.

A PAN may also be carried over wired computer buses such as USB and FireWire.

The two kinds of wireless technologies used for WPAN are Bluetooth and Infrared Data Association.

A WPAN could serve to interconnect all the ordinary computing and communicating devices that many people have on their desk or carry with them today; or it could serve a more specialized purpose such as allowing the surgeon and other team members to communicate during an operation.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia


1 petabyte (PB) = 1000 or 1024 terabytes (TB)

see kilobytemegabytegigabyte, and terabyte

see What is 1 kilobyte? — 1024 bytes or 1000 bytes?

Physical address

see MAC address


Personal Identification Number

see also SIM card


Contracted from "Picture element": the smallest unit visible on-screen.

see also Resolution


Post Office Protocol v.3 - a protocol used to retrieve e-mail from a mail server. Most e-mail applications (sometimes called an e-mail client) use the POP protocol, although some can use the newer IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol).

There are two versions of POP. The first, called POP2, became a standard in the mid-80's and requires SMTP to send messages. The newer version, POP3, can be used with or without SMTP.

from Webopedia

see also:

  • IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol
  • MAPI - Messaging Application Programming Interface
  • SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol


Personal Unblocking Code

see SIM card


The number of Pixels that make up a digital image or screen display.  High resolutions allow for very detailed images.

Retail Licence

A licence for the use of software that has been purchased separately from the computer or other equipment on which it is used.  The software will normally have been purchased on a disk or downloaded by the purchaser.  The licence permits the software to be used by the purchaser and can normally be transferred between devices, although they normally permit the software to be installed on only one device (or other set number of devices) at the same time.

The primary distinction between a Retail Licence and an OEM Licence is that an OEM Licence is tied to the equipment, whereas a Retail Licence is tied to the purchaser.

see also OEM Licence


Read the f***ing manual !!


see RTFM, and RTM Version

RTM is also used as an acronym/abbreviation with numerous other meanings.  See, for example, What does RTM stand for?; RTM at The Free Dictionary - AcronymsRTM may refer to: at Wikipedia

RTM version

Short for release to manufacturing, the version of a software product that is given to manufacturers to bundle into future versions of their hardware products. RTM versions are typically released to manufacturers before they are released to the general public so that the manufacturers can work out any bugs the software may encounter with hardware devices. The release of an RTM version does not necessarily mean that the creators have worked out all the problems with the software; there still may be more versions of the product before it is released to the general public.

from webopedia


Software as a Service - where software is sold as a subscription service (with updates, and monitored via the Cloud), instead of being sold as a one-off purchase.

SD card

see Secure Digital card

Second-level domain

see Domain Name and Domain Name System

Secure Digital card

Secure Digital (SD) is a nonvolatile memory card used extensively in portable devices, such as mobile phones, digital cameras, GPS navigation devices, handheld consoles, and tablet computers. It is a family of solid-state storage media.

The Secure Digital standard was introduced in August 1999 as an improvement over MultiMediaCards (MMC). The Secure Digital standard is maintained by the SD Association (SDA). SD technologies have been implemented in more than 400 brands across dozens of product categories and more than 8,000 models.[1]

The Secure Digital format includes four card families available in three different form factors. The four families are the original Standard-Capacity (SDSC), the High-Capacity (SDHC), the eXtended-Capacity (SDXC), and the SDIO, which combines input/output functions with data storage.[2][3][4] The three form factors are the original size, the mini size, and the micro size. Electrically passive adapters allow a smaller card to fit and function in a device built for a larger card.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia

Secure Socket Layer

see Transport Layer Security

see also Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (https)


see SQL

Short Message Service

Short Message Service (SMS) is also commonly referred to as a "text messaging", "texting", etc..  SMS allows you to send a 'short' message to another device.  The maximum size of a text messages is 160 characters (alpha-numeric characters in the Latin alphabet), with no images or graphics; for other alphabets, such as Chinese, the maximum SMS size is 70 characters.  Longer messages are automatically split into several parts.

Although mainly used for exchanging messages between mobile phones, messages can also be exchanged using land-line phones, fax machines, and internet IP addresses.  It uses standardized communications protocols to allow such devices to exchange the short text messages.

from (and more information at) (i) 'What's the difference between a text message, SMS, and MMS'; and (ii) Wikipedia.

More information at 'How SMS Works'; WebopediaLifewire: 'What Does SMS Messaging Mean?'; and 'Everything You Need to Know About SMS & MMS'.

see also Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)


Second-level domain (name)

see Domain Name and Domain Name System

SIM card

A SIM card is used in mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and computers) to identify and authenticate subscribers. It carries an integrated circuit chip known as a subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM). This contains contains its unique serial number, known as the integrated circuit card identifier (ICCID); international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number; security authentication and ciphering information, temporary information related to the local network, a list of the services the user has access to, and two passwords: a personal identification number (PIN) for ordinary use, and a personal unblocking code (PUK) for PIN unlocking.  It is also possible to store contacts on many SIM cards.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia


see Short Message Service


Simple Mail Transfer Protocol - a protocol for sending e-mail messages between servers. Most e-mail systems that send mail over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from one server to another; the messages can then be retrieved with an e-mail client using either POP or IMAP. In addition, SMTP is generally used to send messages from a mail client to a mail server. This is why you need to specify both the POP or IMAP server and the SMTP server when you configure your e-mail application. ("SMTP" is pronounced as separate letters.)

from Webopedia

see also:

  • IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol
  • MAPI - Messaging Application Programming Interface
  • POP3 - Post Office Protocol v.3

Solid State Drive

A solid-state drive (SSD, also known as a solid-state disk) is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently. SSD technology primarily uses electronic interfaces compatible with traditional block input/output (I/O) hard disk drives (HDDs), which permit simple replacements in common applications.

SSDs have no moving mechanical components. This distinguishes them from traditional electromechanical magnetic disks such as hard disk drives (HDDs) or floppy disks, which contain spinning disks and movable read/write heads. Compared with electromechanical disks, SSDs are typically more resistant to physical shock, run silently, have lower access time, and lower latency. However, while the price of SSDs has continued to decline over time, consumer-grade SSDs are (as of 2016) still roughly four times more expensive per unit of storage than consumer-grade HDDs.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia


see Solid State Drive


An SSID (Service Set IDentifier) is also known as a "network name": essentially it is a name that identifies a wireless local area network (WLAN), allowing devices to connect to the desired network when multiple independent networks operate in the same physical area. It is a case-sensitive, 32 alphanumeric character unique identifier attached to the header of packets sent over a wireless local-area network (WLAN).

from (and more information at) TechTarget and Webopedia


see Secure Socket Layer


SQL is commonly pronounced "sequel", and is a contraction of Structured Query Language, which is a database management language for relational databases.

from (and more information at) Progopedia

see also Wikipedia


see Terabyte


1 terabyte (TB) = 1000 or 1024 gigabytes (GB)

see kilobytemegabyte, and gigabyte

see What is 1 kilobyte? — 1024 bytes or 1000 bytes?


Top-level domain (name)

see Domain Name and Domain Name System


see Transport Layer Security

Top-level domain

For context, see Domain Name and Domain Name System

There are four types or groups of top-level domains, of which the first two listed below are the most common:

from (and more information at) Wikipedia

see also List of Internet top-level domains

Transport Layer Security

Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), both of which are frequently referred to as 'SSL', are cryptographic protocols designed to provide communications security by encrypting data as it is passed between a website and a user while web browsing.  

Various versions of the protocols are also in widespread use in applications such as emailinternet faxinginstant messaging, and voice-over-IP (VoIP).

The use of SSL/TLS is signified in most browsers by "https" and a padlock appearing in the URL bar.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia

see also Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (https)

Uniform Resource Identifier

see Uniform Resource Locator

Uniform Resource Locator


A uniform resource locator (URL) or uniform resource identifier (URI) is a reference to a resource that specifies the location of the resource on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. (from Wikipedia)

Most commonly, URL can be considered to refer to a website address (e.g., but a URL may also be used for database access, file transfer, email, and many other applications.

Also, strictly, the URL consists of at least three components:

  • the method of accessing the desired resource; normally referred to as the scheme or protocol, e.g. http;
  • a colon followed by two slashes ( :// );
  • the name/identity of the host or resource to be accessed, normally given as a domain name;

and optionally one or more of:

  • a port number;
  • the path to access the resource;
  • a query string (e.g. a search request);
  • a fragment identifier,  specifying a part or position within the overall resource or document.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia


see Uniform Resource Identifier


see Uniform Resource Locator

URL bar / field

see address bar and URL 


Universal Serial Bus - A common type of connection between a computer and other devices, including printers, external hard drives, and mobile devices.

USB 2.0 - A high-speed USB connection.

USB 3.0 - The latest & fastest version of USB, also known as SuperSpeed USB.

see also USB OTG


USB On The Go : USB OTG is a standard that enables mobile devices to talk to one another. Traditionally mobile devices could only connect to a Mac/PC by USB, but USB OTG makes it possible for devices to connect directly to each other.

And that's not all USB OTG can do. By enabling your device to act as a USB host – that is, to be the boss of other devices that you connect to it – you can use additional hardware such as storage, keyboards or even musical instruments together with your handset.

from (and more information at) AndroidPIT

USB OTG connection (cable or device) has a male USB connector (plug) at one end and a female USB connector (socket) at the other end, whereas most USB cables have male connectors at both ends.

see also USB

Video Graphics Array

Video Graphics Array (VGA) refers specifically to the display hardware first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, but through its widespread adoption has also come to mean either an Amplitude Modulated computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector or the 640x480 resolution itself.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia;

see also HDMI vs. DisplayPort vs. DVI vs. VGA: Which connection to choose?


see Video Graphics Array

Voice over Internet Protocol

Voice over Internet Protocol or Voice over IP (VoIP) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet. Other terms commonly associated with VoIP are IP telephonyInternet telephonybroadband telephony, and broadband phone service.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia


see Voice over Internet Protocol


see Wide area network

Web browser

web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application used to locate, retrieve and display content on the World Wide Web, including Web pages, images, video and other files. The browser specifies the desired web page or other resource using its uniform resource identifier/locator (URI/URL); retrieves it from the specified location, and displays it or the results within the browser window on the computer or similar device.

Although browsers are primarily intended to use the World Wide Web, they can also be used to access information provided by routers, web servers in private networks or files in file systems.

The most common browsers are Firefox, Microsoft Internet Explorer (up to Windows 8.1), Microsoft Edge (replaces Internet Explorer from Windows 10), Google ChromeOpera, and Safari.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia and Webopedia.

Wide area network

see Local area network


Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) networks are wireless networks that run within free radio bands around the world.

from My Samsung Galaxy Note 4, p.63, Johnson & Hart-Davis, pub. Que 2015

Wi-Fi Direct

Wi-Fi Direct is a feature that allows two devices running Android v.4.1 or later to connect to each other using Wi-Fi in order to exchange files.  Wi-Fi is much faster than Bluetooth, and this technology is therefore useful when exchanging large files. Using Wi-Fi Direct does not require either device to be connected to an existing Wi-Fi network.

from My Samsung Galaxy Note 4, p.68, Johnson & Hart-Davis, pub. Que 2015

see also Bluetooth

Wireless Fidelity

see Wi-Fi

Wireless Personal Area Network

see Personal Area Network


Wireless local area network

see Local area network and Hotspot


see Wireless Personal Area Network


see Yottabyte


1 yottabyte (ZB) = 1000 or 1024 zettabytes (EB)

see kilobytemegabytegigabyte, terabytepetabyte, exabytes, and zettabyte

see What is 1 kilobyte? — 1024 bytes or 1000 bytes?


see Zettabyte


1 zettabyte (ZB) = 1000 or 1024 exabytes (EB)

see kilobytemegabytegigabyte, terabytepetabyte, and exabyte

see What is 1 kilobyte? — 1024 bytes or 1000 bytes?


Distributed Denial of Service, usually in the context of a Distributed Denial of Service attack.

see Denial of Service Attack


Denial of Service, usually in the context of a Denial of Service attack.

see Denial of Service attack

Denial of Service attack

DoS (Denial of Service) and DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks are becoming increasingly common and potent. Denial of Service attacks come in many forms, but share a common purpose: stopping users from accessing a resource, whether it’s a web page, email, the phone network, or something else entirely. ... At its core, a Denial of Service attack is typically performed by flooding a server—say, the server of a web site—so much that it’s unable to provide its services to legitimate users.

A Distributed Denial of Service attack is one that has multiple (sometimes unwitting) attackers. Web sites and applications are designed to handle many concurrent connections—after all, web sites wouldn’t be very useful if only one person could visit at a time. Giant services like Google, Facebook, or Amazon are designed to handle millions or tens of millions of concurrent users. Because of that, it’s not feasible for a single attacker to bring them down with a denial of service attack. But many attackers could. ...

from (and more information at) How-to Geek : What Are Denial of Service and DDoS Attacks?


see Transmission Control Protocol

Transmission Control Protocol

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)  is the most commonly used protocol on the Internet. When you load a web page, your computer sends TCP packets to the web server’s address, asking it to send the web page to you. The web server responds by sending a stream of TCP packets, which your web browser stitches together to form the web page and display it to you. When you click a link, sign in, post a comment, or do anything else, your web browser sends TCP packets to the server and the server sends TCP packets back. TCP isn’t just one way communication — the remote system sends packets back to acknowledge it’s received your packets.

from (and more information at) How-to Geek : What’s the Difference Between TCP and UDP?

see also User Datagram Protocol (UDP)

User Datagram Protocol

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) — a datagram is the same thing as a packet of information. The UDP protocol works similarly to TCP, but it throws all the error-checking stuff out. All the back-and-forth communication and deliverability guarantees slow things down.

When using UDP, packets are just sent to the recipient. The sender won’t wait to make sure the recipient received the packet — it will just continue sending the next packets. If you’re the recipient and you miss some UDP packets, too bad — you can’t ask for those packets again. There’s no guarantee you’re getting all the packets and there’s no way to ask for a packet again if you miss it, but losing all this overhead means the computers can communicate more quickly.

UDP is used when speed is desirable and error correction isn’t necessary. For example, UDP is frequently used for live broadcasts and online games.

from (and more information at) How-to Geek : What’s the Difference Between TCP and UDP?

see also Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)


see User Datagram Protocol


see Mobile High-Definition Link

Mobile High-Definition Link

Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL) is an industry standard for a mobile audio/video interface that allows the connection of mobile phones, tablets, and other portable consumer electronics (CE) devices to high-definition televisions (HDTVs) and audio receivers. MHL-enabled products include adapters, automotive accessories, AV receivers, Blu-ray Disc players, cables, DTVs, media sticks, monitors, projectors, smartphones, tablets, TV accessories and more. MHL is a consortium made up of major companies in the mobile and CE industries, including SONY, Nokia, Samsung, Silicon Image and Toshiba.

from (and more information at) Wikipedia

Also more information at and What Is MHL?

Near Field Communication​

Near Field Communication (NFC) is a short-range wireless connectivity technology that enables convenient short-range communication between electronic devices. NFC applications can be split into four basic categories: Touch and GoTouch and ConfirmTouch and ConnectTouch and Explore.

from (and more information at) Webopedia

see also Android Beam


see Near Field Communication​

Android Beam

A feature that enables Google Android-based smartphonestablets and similar mobile devices to share content with other near-field communication-capable devices by simply touching the devices together and pressing a button on the device sending the content. The Android Beam feature first appeared in the v4.1 “Ice Cream Sandwich” release of Google’s Android mobile operating system, which became available in late 2011.

Android Beam relies on near-field communication (NFC) to “beam,” or transfer, photos, web pages and links, contact details, videos and more between devices.  Android Beam can also be used for swipeless or contactless payments and funds transfers.

from (and more information at) Webopedia

see also Near Field Communication​

bot & botnet

A 'bot' is a type of malware that an attacker can use to control an infected computer or mobile device. A group or network of machines that have been co-opted this way and are under the control of the same attacker is known a 'botnet'.

from F-Secure


see Long Term Evolution

Long Term Evolution

Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a 4G wireless communications standard designed to provide up to 10x the speeds of 3G networks for mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, netbooks, notebooks, and wireless hotspots.

from (and more information at) Webopedia