Washington History Society
Few Springwell or Washington residents were aware of the presence of a nuclear bunker on their doorsteps during the dangerous days of the Cold War in the 1960s, when the world was on the brink of a nuclear war with Russia and its satellites.
Older readers may remember that during World War 2, and particularly in the Battle of Britain, the Royal Observer Corps played an important role in identifying and reporting enemy aircraft to the RAF, so that fighters could be despatched to destroy them. Even after the War the ROC continued to report military aircraft movements in exercises with the RAF. In the late 1950s the organisation was given the additional task of reporting the location of nuclear explosions and the subsequent levels of fallout, in the event of a nuclear war.
A programme was set in motion to build a national network of 1500 small underground bunkers or Posts, linked to larger Group and Sector control bunkers, where military personnel and Home Office Scientists would analyse the information provided, and take appropriate action. The posts were provided with telephone lines, and later radios, and with instruments to detect and provide accurate data about the location and strength of nuclear bomb bursts. They would then monitor the spread of subsequent radioactive fallout. The public would be warned through sounding sirens and by firing maroons (rockets). The comprehensive network of posts would allow the Government to build up a post-attack picture for the whole country.
One of these posts was built at Springwell near Washington, and was given the call sign “November 4”. It was built in 1959, and was sunk into the top one of the “pit heaps” surrounding Springwell Colliery, giving it an excellent all-round view. The small band of local volunteers who manned the post lived locally, and met in a Civil Defence building in Blue House Lane, Washington to train in the use of the monitoring equipment, and in reporting procedures. Regular training exercises were also held at the Springwell post, during which the post would be manned by 3 or 4 Observers, working in shifts, sometimes through the night. Annual training camps, for more comprehensive training, were held at RAF stations throughout the country.
As the nuclear threat diminished in the late 1960s, the network of posts was gradually reduced. The Springwell post was closed in 1968, and the concrete structure demolished shortly afterwards. A smaller national network of Royal Observer Corps posts existed until 1992, when the last ones were stood down. The pit heap on which the Springwell post was built was later removed, and today, apart from photographs and the memories of the ROC members, there is no evidence that it existed. The whole of the Royal Observer Corps organisation was disbanded in 1992.
The attached photographs were taken during some of the Royal Observer Corps national training exercises, and at the annual training camps. The Chief Observer, in charge of the Springwell post was George Fuller, who lived in London Avenue, Washington, assisted by Leading Observer John McGlenn who lived on Coach Road Estate. The names of some of the other Observers are given in the captions of the photos.
More detailed information on the Royal Observer Corps can be found in the publication “The Royal Observer Corps Underground Monitoring Posts” by Mark Dalton, published by Folly Books, Price £22.95